Fresh fruits and vegetables are vitally important in the human diet as they are a primary source of
proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, dietary fibers, minerals, and minor but important bioactive
nutrients such as e.g. polyphenols. One of the most limiting factors in marketing of fresh fruits and
vegetables is their short shelf life. They are highly perishable due to the biochemical reactions involved   in   metabolism,  risk   of   infection   with   pathogenic  microorganisms   and   environmental conditions  of storage. If  the  harvested  fruits  and  vegetables  are  not  instantly  processed  and preserved using proper methods, the economic loss resulting from their spoilage can be substantial. In  order  to  meet  the  increasing  consumer  demand for fresh-like, natural,  and additive free  and minimally-processed  fruits  and  vegetables  and  to  reduce  economic  loss,  various  processing  and preservation technologies have been extensively investigated to extend the shelf life and to preserve the  quality  of  fresh  fruits  and  vegetables. Many physical  preservation  methods  such  as  freezing, canning, and drying that rely on heating and cooling operations have been explored. Although these technologies ensure a high level of food safety, the heating and cooling of fruits and vegetables can result insignificant quality losses.  For  instance,  the colour, flavour,  and  texture  of  fruits  and vegetables subjected to heating and/or cooling processes can be irreversibly altered.


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Tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. Chicory (Belgium Endive) Cichorium intybus L. Cauliflower Brassica oleracea convar. botrytis var. botrytis Brussels Sprouts Brassica oleracea convar. oleracea var. gemmifera Green bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. Sweet Pepper Capsicum annuum L. Barley Hordeum vulgare L.
Application area
Food & feed
Research stage
Public availability
Relevant plant compounds
carbohydrates proteins Vitamins and minerals

Pros and cons

Used conversion methods

Mechanical-Physical processes

Biochemical processes