Organic waste sludges from the food industry are a source of bio-molecules which can be upgraded to fish feed when used to rear aquatic worms. Bob Laarhoven proposed in his thesis that for valorisation of waste streams by aquatic worms these streams preferably are free from contaminants such as organic micro pollutants, heavy metals and pathogens. Therefore, sewage (municipal) sludge can not be used as a substrate for the worms. However, these contaminated sludges might still be used for non-food applications. Ultimately, the quality of the applied waste stream determines the application potential of the worm biomass as well as the options for downstream processing and refinery.